On January 13th and 14th, 2015, the Committee on the Rights of the Child considered the combined second to fourth periodic report of Turkmenistan on the situation of the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the country. The Turkmen delegation was led by Mrs. Lyudmila Amanniyazova, Deputy Head of the State Statistics Committee and H.E. Mr. Atageldi Haljanov, Permanent Representative of Turkmenistan to the United Nations Office at Geneva.
General overview of breastfeeding in Turkmenistan
Breastfeeding rates are low in Turkmenistan: nine children out of 10 are not exclusively breastfed under 6 months of age and less than 4 children out of 10 receive continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding is also very low (59.8%) while neonatal, infant and under-5 mortality rates are still high in the country.
In 2009, Turkmenistan adopted the Law on Protection and Promotion of Breastfeeding and Requirements for Infant Feeding Products, amended in 2013, which determines the main public policies on child nutrition and regulates the distribution and marketing of safe baby foods. However, this law implements only partially the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes and there is no clarity on its implementation or on any monitoring mechanism.
Besides, there is no recent data on the implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospitals Initiative in the country. In 2009-2010, 81% of the maternity facilities were certified as ‘baby-friendly’. Finally, no comprehensive information on maternity protection, HIV and breastfeeding and infant feeding in emergnecies is available.
Discussion on infant and young child feeding
The CRC Committee specifically addressed the issue of breastfeeding and the lack of breastfeeding-related information. After welcoming the adoption of the 2009 law(see above)and its 2013 amendments, the Committee expressed concern for the low exclusive breastfeeding rate under 6 months and asked about the root causes of this drop as well as about the measures taken to tackle it.
Additional questions were made on the number of Baby-Friendly hospitals in the country and on the training available for expecting mothers and fathers on parenthood and breastfeeding practices. The CRC Committee also raised the issue of the training provided to health professionals on breastfeeding, the duration of the maternity leave and the existence of a paternity leave. It also highlighted that information on mother-to-child HIV transmission and on HIV and breastfeeding was missing.
The Turkmen delegation specified that according the 2009 law prohibits the distribution of samples of infant formula to families, in line with the International Code. It mentioned that currently, some 95% of hospitals and maternities are certified as “Baby-Friendly”, that expecting mothers learn about breastfeeding as part of their preparation to motherhood, and that about 2,000 parents have been given training on child care. Thanks to the measures undertaken, the rate of children ever breastfed increased from 41% in 2008 to 61% in 2014. A study conducted in two regions of the country showed that 59% of children aged 0-5 months were exclusively breastfed. Lastly, a study assessed that doctors and nurses have good knowledge on breastfeeding.
Concerning maternity protection, the delegation explained that there are 3 types of State maternity allowances for child care, given respectively before delivery, at delivery and after deliver. It also mentioned that the maternity leave should not be less than 190 days, according to the Turkmen legislation, which also provides for a paternity leave. The delegation stated that legislation provides breastfeeding breaks of 30 minutes every three hours, available for lactating mothers with children up to 1 year and a half of age. The duration of the breastfeeding breaks can change depending on the number of children and it is considered as working time, thus not deducted from the salary.
Additional information was given on the network of health care centres that is being developed and empowered throughout the country, in order to provide coverage of maternal and children’s health services in the main cities as well as in the rural areas. No information was given on HIV and breastfeeding.
In its Concluding Observations, the Committee made several recommendations directly related to breastfeeding.
With regard to breastfeeding protection, the Committee urged Turkmenistan to “enact legislation implementing all the provisions of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes” (§ 49b), as well as to “ensure that working mothers have the practical possibility to breastfeed, including by developing breastfeeding-friendly workplaces and child care centres at work” (§ 49e). Concerning the promotion of breastfeeding, the Committee recommended the country to enhance its efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding practices (§ 49a) and to raise awareness about optimal breastfeeding practices among the population (§ 49c). Finally, on data collection, the Committee urged Turkmenistan to “ensure systematic collection of data on infant and young child feeding” (§ 49d).